治療薬とワクチンの違いって何?わかりやすく解説!

アイキャッチ ウイルス

こんにちはNUMARABOです。

新型コロナウイルスでの治療薬の開発がどうだとか、ワクチンの開発がどうだとか、巷では話されていますが、そもそも治療薬とワクチンって何が違うの?と思ったので解説していきます。

治療薬とワクチンの違い

この2つの違いを簡単に言うと、感染する前に使用するものか感染した後に使用するものかという違いです。

使用する時期が変わるため、それぞれが及ぼす効果も大きく変わっています。

ここからは、それぞれの特徴を解説します。



ワクチンとは

これは、ウイルスに感染するにうつものです。

ワクチンは予防薬の一種でその名の通り、ウイルスを予防するために使われます。

また、ワクチンの中にも「生ワクチン」「不活化ワクチン」「トキソイド」というものがあります。生ワクチンは、病原体はあるがその力を弱めたものを体内に入れることにより、免疫力がつきます。

分かりやすく言うならば、本体が来た時に倒せるように(本体と同じ特性をもつけど弱い)敵と戦って練習しているようなものです。この練習をすることによって本体が来た時には強くなっていて倒せるようになるよ というものです。

また、不活化ワクチンは病原性をなくしたものを使います。こちらの場合は生ワクチンほどの免疫力が一回ではつきにくいので、何回かに分けて摂取します。

最後はトキソイドです。これは細菌の産生するトキソン(毒素)を取り出して、免疫力はつくけど毒性はなくしたものになります。不活化として分類されることもあります。

(参考:ワクチンってな~により)

これらのワクチンに共通することは、免疫力を高めるということです。

ワクチンにより、「ウイルスに感染しづらくなる」「感染しても重症になりにくい」という効果が見られます。

治療薬とは

この薬は名前の通り治療するための薬なので 感染したに投与する薬で、体の中に入ってしまったウイルスにたいして効果を発揮するものです。

ウイルスを倒すといっても、遺伝子作り(ウイルスの増殖)を妨げたり、人のDNAにウイルスのDNAが入るのを妨げたり、他にはウイルスがたんぱく質を切るのを妨げたりします。

これらの効果が治療薬にあるわけです。

どちらが先に開発される?

治療薬は予防薬といわれるワクチンよりも開発が難しいといわれています。

その理由の一つに効果が出ているのかいないのかが分かりずらいという点が挙げられます。治療薬の場合は症状が改善されたり、投与されていない場合と比べて速く治った、といったように目に見えてわかるので大丈夫なのですが、ワクチンの場合はそうはいきません。

また、病気にかかる徴候が出ている人を集めて試験を行う必要があります。

そもそもワクチンにも副作用が出るものもありますし、まだかかってもいないのにそのリスクを負う人が多いわけがありません。

ワクチンを作るには、このように「検査を受ける人が少ない」という場合と「効果が見ずらい」という壁があります。

ですが、薬を作るという観点でいえばどちらもとてつもない時間がかかるのは確かです。

このように、ただ開発すればいいというわけではなく人体にたいしてどのような影響があるかを長い年月をかけて慎重に試験しなければなりません。

新型コロナウイルスに対するワクチンや治療薬も開発できたとしてもすぐに使えるわけではないので、長い目で見ておかなければならないですね。

以上でこの記事を終わります。

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